Specialisation and division of labour

Division of labour

Division of labour means breaking down of the production process into small operations. When the work is divided, it allows workers to specialise in a special task to which he does best. In an industry there are many firms and each firm has many departments. In each department there are many workers. Each worker has his/her own specialised job. This is the principle of division of labour. For example in the banking industry, there are many banks. Each bank has many departments like accounts department, the clearing department, the payments and receipts department, credit card centre, etc. Within each department there are many staffs. Each staff has his/her own job. For example, in receipts and payments department, some workers deal with cheques while some others do the clerical work and work on computers.

Division of labour at individual level

Division of labour at individual level means breaking down of a production process into tasks so that each person performs a particular task that he is most skilled in. For example a person maybe solely responsible for only cutting the fish in a fish canning factory.

Division of labour and specialisation by a firm

In the same way, a firm may be specialised for the production of a particular production or even a component of a product. For example, intel is specialised in the manufacture of processors and motherboards which are used by most of the computer makers.

Division of labour at regional level

This happens when a particular region in a country is involved in the production of a particular product. This maybe due to the availability of natural resources in that region. For example, Kaashidhoo and Thoddoo ( both are islands in the Maldives) are specialised in farming. Both islands especially Kaashidhoo has availability of fertile land and fresh water.

Division of labour at national level

sometimes a country may specialise in the production of one line of goods. This is also due to the availability of resources and/or favourable climatic conditions in that particular country. For example, Malaysia specializes in the production of rubber and palm oil, Cuba produces sugar and Brazil produces coffee.

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